Young T, Palta M, Dempsey J, Skatrud J, Weber S, Badr S: The occurrence of sleep-disordered breathing among middle-aged adults. N Engl J Med. 1993, 32: 1230-1235.
Young T, Skatrud J, Peppard PE: Risk factors for obstructive sleep apnea in adults. JAMA. 2004, 291: 2013-2016. 10.1001/jama.291.16.2013.
Guilleminault C, Tilkian A, Dement WC: The sleep apnea syndromes. Annu Rev Med. 1976, 27: 465-484. 10.1146/annurev.me.27.020176.002341.
Somers VK, Dyken ME, Clary MP, Abboud FM: Sympathetic neural mechanisms in obstructive sleep apnea. J Clin Invest. 1995, 96: 1897-1904. 10.1172/JCI118235.
Kato M, Roberts-Thomson P, Phillips BG: Impairment of endothelium-dependent vasodilation of resistance vessels in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. Circulation. 2000, 102: 2607-2610. 10.1161/01.CIR.102.21.2607.
Ross R: Atherosclerosis: an inflammatory disease. N Engl J Med. 1999, 340: 115-126. 10.1056/NEJM199901143400207.
Glass CK, Witztum JL: Atherosclerosis: the road ahead. Cell. 2001, 104: 503-516. 10.1016/S0092-8674(01)00238-0.
Nieto FJ, Young TB, Lind BK: Association of sleep-disordered breathing, sleep apnea, and hypertension in a large community-based study. Sleep Heart Health. JAMA. 2000, 283: 1829-1836.
Peppard PE, Young T, Palta M: Prospective study of the association between sleep-disordered breathing and hypertension. N Engl J Med. 2000, 342: 1378-1384. 10.1056/NEJM200005113421901.
Shahar E, Whitney CW, Redline S, Lee ET, Newman AB, Javier Nieto F, O’Connor GT, Boland LL, Schwartz JE, Samet JM: Sleep-disordered breathing and cardiovascular disease: cross-sectional results of the Sleep Heart Health Study. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2001, 163: 19-25. 10.1164/ajrccm.163.1.2001008.
Peker Y, Hedner J, Norum J, Kraiczi H, Carlson J: Increased incidence of cardiovascular disease in middle-aged men with obstructive sleep apnea: a 7-year follow-up. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2002, 166: 159-165. 10.1164/rccm.2105124.
Imadojemu VA, Gleeson K, Gray KS, Sinoway LI, Leuenberger UA: Obstructive sleep apnea during sleep is associated with peripheral vasoconstriction. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2002, 165: 61-66. 10.1164/ajrccm.165.1.2009062.
Sajkov D, Wang T, Saunders NA, Bune AJ, McEvoy RD: Continuous positive airway pressure treatment improves pulmonary hemodynamics in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2002, 166: 152-158.
Amin RS, Kimball TR, Bean JA, Jeffries JL, Willging JP, Cotton RT, Witt SA, Glascock BJ, Daniels SR: Left ventricular hypertrophy and abnormal ventricular geometry in children and adolescents with obstructive sleep apnea. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2002, 165: 1395-1399. 10.1164/rccm.2105118.
Sekosan M, Zakkar M, Wenig BL, Olopade CO, Rubenstein I: Inflammation in the uvula mucosa of patients with obstructive sleep apnea. Laryngoscope. 1996, 106: 1018-1020. 10.1097/00005537-199608000-00021.
Bergeron C, Kimoff J, Hamid Q: Images in allergy and immunology: obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and inflammation. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2005, 116: 1393-1396. 10.1016/j.jaci.2005.10.008.
Puig F, Rico F, Almendros I, Montserrat JM, Navajas D, Farre R: Vibration enhances interleukin-8 release in a cell model of snoring induced airway inflammation. Sleep. 2005, 28: 1312-1316.
Yokoe T, Minoguchi K, Matsuo H, Oda N, Minoguchi H, Yoshino G: Elevated levels of C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome are decreased by nasal continuous positive airway pressure. Circulation. 2003, 107: 1129-1134. 10.1161/01.CIR.0000052627.99976.18.
Shamsuzzaman ASM, Winnicki M, Lanfranchi P, Wolk R, Kara T, Accurso V, Somers VK: Elevated C - reactive protein in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. Circulation. 2002, 105: 2462-2464. 10.1161/01.CIR.0000018948.95175.03.
Kokturk O, Ciftci TU, Mollarecep E, Ciftci B: Elevated C-reactive protein levels and increased cardiovascular risk in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Int Heart J. 2005, 46: 801-809. 10.1536/ihj.46.801.
Ursavaş A, Karadağ M, Rodoplu E, Yilmaztepe A, Oral HB, Gözü RO: Circulating ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 levels in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Respiration. 2007, 74: 525-532. 10.1159/000097770.
von Känel R, Loredo JS, Ancoli-Israel S, Mills PJ, Natarajan L, Dimsdale JE: Association between polysomnographic measures of disrupted sleep and prothrombotic factors. Chest. 2007, 131: 733-739. 10.1378/chest.06-2006.
Punjabi NM, Beamer BA: C-reactive protein is associated with sleep disordered breathing independent of adiposity. Sleep. 2007, 30: 29-34.
de la Pena Bravo M, Serpero LD, Barcelo A: Inflammatory proteins in patients with obstructive sleep apnea with and without daytime sleepiness. Sleep Breath. 2007, 11: 177-185. 10.1007/s11325-007-0100-7.
Minoguchi K, Tazaki T, Yokoe T: Elevated production of tumor necrosis factor-α by monocytes in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Chest. 2004, 126: 1473-1479. 10.1378/chest.126.5.1473.
Ciftci TU, Korturk O, Bukan N: The relationship between serum cytokine levels with obesity and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Cytokine. 2004, 28: 87-91. 10.1016/j.cyto.2004.07.003.
Vgontzas AN, Papanicolaou DA, Bixler EO, Kales A, Tyson K, Chrousos GP: Elevation of plasma cytokines in disorders of excessive daytime sleepiness: role of sleep disturbance and obesity. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1997, 82: 1313-1316. 10.1210/jc.82.5.1313.
Vgontzas AN, Papanicolaou DA, Bixler EO, Hopper K, Lotsikas A, Lin HM, Kales A, Chrousos GP: Sleep apnea and daytime sleepiness and fatigue: relation to visceral obesity, insulin resistance, and hypercytokinemia. J Endocrinol Metab. 2000, 85: 1151-1158. 10.1210/jc.85.3.1151.
Liu H, Liu J, Xiong S, Shen G, Zhang Z, Xu Y: The change of interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. J Tongji Med Univ. 2000, 20: 200-202. 10.1007/BF02886988.
Barceló A, Barbé F, Llompart E, Mayoralas LR, Ladaria A, Bosch M: Effects of obesity on C-reactive protein level and metabolic disturbances in male patients with obstructive sleep apnea. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2004, 117: 118-121.
Guilleminault C, Kirisoglu C, Ohayon MM: C-reactive protein and sleep-disordered breathing. Sleep. 2004, 27: 1507-1511.
Castell J, Gomez-Lechion M, David M: Acute phase response of human hepatocyte: regulation of acute-phase protein synthesis by interleukin-6. Hepatology. 1990, 12: 1179-1186. 10.1002/hep.1840120517.
Pasulka P, Bristian BR, Blackburn GL: Obesity and erythrocyte sedimentation rates. Ann Intern Med. 1985, 103: 304-
Roytblat L, Rachinsky M, Fisher A, Greemberg L, Shapira Y, Douvdevani A: Raised interleukin-6 levels in obese patients. Obes Res. 2000, 8: 673-675. 10.1038/oby.2000.86.
Meier-Ewert HK, Ridker PM, Rifai N: Absence of diurnal variation of C-reactive protein concentrations in healthy human subjects. Clin Chem. 2001, 47: 426-430.
Jialal I, Devaraj S, Venugopal SK: C-reactive protein: risk marker or mediator in atherothrombosis?. Hypertension. 2004, 44: 6-11. 10.1161/01.HYP.0000130484.20501.df.
Calabro P, Willerson JT, Yeh ET: Infl ammatory cytokines stimulated C-reactive protein production by human coronary artery smooth muscle cells. Circulation. 2003, 108: 1930-1932. 10.1161/01.CIR.0000096055.62724.C5.
Devaraj S, Xu DY, Jialal I: C-reactive protein increases plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 expression and activity in human aortic endothelial cells: implications for the metabolic syndrome and atherothrombosis. Circulation. 2003, 107: 398-404. 10.1161/01.CIR.0000052617.91920.FD.
Han KH, Hong KH, Park JH, Ko J, Kang DH, Choi KJ: C-reactive protein promotes monocyte chemoattractant protein-I-mediated chemotaxis through upregulating CC chemokine receptor 2 expression in human monocytes. Circulation. 2004, 109: 2566-2571. 10.1161/01.CIR.0000131160.94926.6E.
Fichlscherer S, Breuer S, Schachinger V, Dimmeler S, Zeiher AM: C-reactive protein levels determine systemic nitric oxide bioavailability in patients with coronary artery disease. Eur Heart J. 2004, 25: 1412-1418. 10.1016/j.ehj.2004.06.026.
Ridker PM: High-sensitivity C-reactive protein: potential adjunct for global risk assessment in the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Circulation. 2001, 103: 1813-1818. 10.1161/01.CIR.103.13.1813.
Danesh J, Whincup P, Walker M: Low grade inflammation and coronary heart disease: prospective study and updated meta-analyses. BMJ. 2000, 321: 199-204. 10.1136/bmj.321.7255.199.
Ridker PM: Clinical application of C-reactive protein for cardiovascular disease detection and prevention. Circulation. 2003, 107: 363-369. 10.1161/01.CIR.0000053730.47739.3C.
Lindahl B, Toss H, Siegbahn A: Markers of myocardial damage and inflammation in relation to long-term mortality in unstable coronary artery disease. FRISC study group. Fragmin during instability in coronary artery disease. N Engl J Med. 2000, 343: 1139-1147. 10.1056/NEJM200010193431602.
Ridker PM, Rifai N, Pfeffer MA: Long-term effects of pravastatin on plasma concentration of C-reactive protein. The Cholesterol and Recurrent Events (CARE) Investigators. Circulation. 1999, 100: 230-235. 10.1161/01.CIR.100.3.230.
Yudkin JS: kumari M, Humphries SE, Mohamed-Ali V. Infl ammation, obesity, stress and coronary heart disease: is interleukin-6 the link?. Atherosclerosis. 2000, 148: 209-214. 10.1016/S0021-9150(99)00463-3.
Harris TB, Ferruci L, Tracy RP, Corti MC, Wacholder S, Ettinger WH: Association of elevated interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein levels with mortality in the elderly. Am J Med. 1999, 106: 506-512. 10.1016/S0002-9343(99)00066-2.
Aderka D: The potential biological and clinical significance of the soluble tumor necrosis factor receptors. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 1996, 7: 231-240. 10.1016/S1359-6101(96)00026-3.
Brockhaus M, Schoenfeld H, Schlaeger E, Hunziker W, Lesslauer W, Loetscher H: Identification of two types of tumor necrosis factor receptors on human cell lines by monoclonal antibodies. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1990, 87: 3127-3131. 10.1073/pnas.87.8.3127.
Vgontzas AN, Papanicolaou DA, Bixler EO: Circadian interleukin-6 secretion and quantity and depth of sleep. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1999, 84: 2603-2607. 10.1210/jc.84.8.2603.
Peled N, Greenberg A, Pillar G: Contributions of hypoxia and respiratory disturbance index to sympathetic activation and blood pressure in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Am J Hypertens. 1998, 11: 1284-1289. 10.1016/S0895-7061(98)00159-9.
Malhotra A, Ayas NT, Epstein LJ: The art and science of continuous positive airway pressure therapy in obstructive sleep apnea. Curr Opin Pulm Med. 2000, 6: 490-495. 10.1097/00063198-200011000-00005.
Patel SR, White DP, Malhotra A: Continuous positive airway pressure therapy for treating sleepiness in a diverse population with obstructive sleep apnea: results of a meta-analysis. Arch Intern Med. 2003, 163: 565-571. 10.1001/archinte.163.5.565.
D’Ambrosio C, Bowman T, Mohsenin V: Quality of life in patients with obstructive sleep apnea: effect of nasal continuous positive airway pressure - a prospective study. Chest. 1999, 115: 123-129. 10.1378/chest.115.1.123.
Milleron O, Pilliere R, Foucher A: Benefits of obstructive sleep apnoea treatment in coronary artery disease: a long-term follow-up study. Eur Heart. 2004, 25: 728-734. 10.1016/j.ehj.2004.02.008.
Sackett DL, Straus SE, Richardson WS, Rosenberg W, Haynes RB: Evidence base Medicine-How to practice and teach EBM. 2000, Oxford: Churchill Livingstone, 173-175. 2
Hozo SP, Djulbegovic B, Hozo I: Estimating the mean and variance from the median, range, and the size of a sample. BMC medical research methodology. 2005, 5: 13-10.1186/1471-2288-5-13.
Patruno V, Aiolfi S, Costantino G, Murgia R, Selmi C, Malliani A, Montano N: Fixed and autoadjusting continuous positive airway pressure treatments are not similar in reducing cardiovascular risk factors in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. Chest. 2007, 131 (5): 1393-1399. 10.1378/chest.06-2192.
Phillips CL, Yang Q, Williams A, Roth M, Yee BJ, Hedner JA, Berend N, Grunstein RR: The effect of short-term withdrawal from continuous positive airway pressure therapy on sympathetic activity and markers of vascular inflammation in subjects with obstructive sleep apnoea. J Sleep Res. 2007, 16 (2): 217-225. 10.1111/j.1365-2869.2007.00589.x.
Tamaki S, Yamauchi M, Fukuoka A, Makinodan K, Koyama N, Tomoda K, Yoshikawa M, Kimura H: Production of inflammatory mediators by monocytes in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Intern Med. 2009, 48 (15): 1255-1262. 10.2169/internalmedicine.48.2366.
Schiza SE, Bouloukaki I, Mermigkis C, Panagou P, Tzanakis N, Moniaki V, Tzortzaki E, Siafakas NM: C-reactive protein evolution in obstructive sleep apnoea patients under CPAP therapy. Eur J Clin Invest. 2010, 40 (11): 968-975. 10.1111/j.1365-2362.2010.02348.x.
Mermigkis C, Bouloukaki I, Mermigkis D, Kallergis E, Mavroudi E, Varouchakis G, Tzortzaki E, Siafakas N, Schiza SE: CRP evolution pattern in CPAP-treated obstructive sleep apnea patients. Does gender play a role?. Sleep Breath. 2012, 16 (3): 813-819. 10.1007/s11325-011-0580-3.
Carniero G, Togeiro SM, Ribeiro-Filho FF, Truksinas E, Ribeiro AB, Zanella MT, Tufik S: Continuous positive airway pressure therapy improves hypoadiponectinemia in severe obese men with obstructive sleep apnea without changes in insulin resistance. Metab Syndr Relat Disord. 2009, 7 (6): 537-542. 10.1089/met.2009.0019.
Chung S, Yoon IY, Lee CH, Kim JW: The effects of nasal continuous positive airway pressure on vascular functions and serum cardiovascular risk factors in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Sleep Breath. 2011, 15 (1): 76-81.
Colish J, Walker JR, Elmayergi N, Almutairi S, Alharbi F, Lytwyn M, Francis A, Bohonis S, Zeqlinski M, Kirkpatrick ID, Sharma S, Jassal DS: Obstructive sleep apnea: effects of continuous positive airway pressure on cardiac remodeling as assessed by cardiac biomarkers, echocardiography, and cardiac MRI. Chest. 2012, 141 (3): 674-681. 10.1378/chest.11-0615.
Dorkova Z, Petrasova D, Molcayiova A, Popovnakova M, Tkacova R: Effects of continuous positive airway pressure on cardiovascular risk profile in patients with severe obstructive sleep apnea and metabolic syndrome. Chest. 2008, 134 (4): 686-692. 10.1378/chest.08-0556.
Harsch IA, Koebnick C, Wallaschofski H, Schahin SP, Hahn EG, Ficker JH, Lohmann T, Konturek PC: Resistin levels in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome—the link to subclinical inflammation?. Med Sci Monit. 2004, 10 (9): CR510-5.
Iesato K, Tatsumi K, Saibara T, Nakamura A, Terada J, Tada Y, Sakao S, Tanabe N, Takiguchi Y, Kuriyama T: Decreased lipoprotein lipase in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Circ J. 2007, 71 (8): 1293-8. 10.1253/circj.71.1293.
Ishida K, Kato M, Kato Y, Yanagihara K, Kinugasa Y, Kotani K, Igawa O, Hisatome I, Shigemasa C, Somers VK: Appropriate use of nasal continuous positive airway pressure decreases elevated C-reactive protein in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. Chest. 2009, 136 (1): 125-129. 10.1378/chest.08-1431.
Ryan S, Nolan GM, Hannigan E, Cunningham S, Taylor C, McNicholas WT: Cardiovascular risk markers in obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome and correlation with obesity. Thorax. 2007, 62 (6): 509-514. 10.1136/thx.2006.066720.
Steiropoulos P, Tsara V, Nena E, Fitili C, Kataropoulou M, Froudarakis M, Christaki P, Bouros D: Effect of continuous positive airway pressure treatment on serum cardiovascular risk factors in patients with obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome. Chest. 2007, 132 (3): 843-851. 10.1378/chest.07-0074.
Zhao Q, Liu ZH, Zhao ZH, Luo Q, McEvoy RD, Zhang HL, Wang Y: Effects of obstructive sleep apnea and its treatment on cardiovascular risk in CAD patients. Respir Med. 2011, 105 (10): 1557-1564. 10.1016/j.rmed.2011.05.010.
Arias MA, García-Río F, Alonso-Fernández A, Hernanz A, Hidalgo R, Martínez-Mateo V, Bartolomé S, Rodríguez-Padial L: CPAP decreases plasma levels of soluble tumour necrosis factor-alpha receptor 1 in obstructive sleep apnoea. Eur Respir J. 2008, 32 (4): 1009-1015. 10.1183/09031936.00007008.
Guasti L, Marino F, Cosentino M, Maroni L, Maresca AM, Colombo F, Maio RC, Castiglioni L, Saporiti F, Loraschi A, Gaudio G, Bernasconi A, Laurita E, Grandi AM, Venco A: Cytokine production from peripheral blood mononuclear cells and polymorphonuclear leukocytes in patients studied for suspected obstructive sleep apnea. Sleep Breath. 2011, 15 (1): 3-11. 10.1007/s11325-009-0315-x.
Ryan S, Taylor CT, McNicholas WT: Selective activation of inflammatory pathways by intermittent hypoxia in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Circulation. 2005, 112 (17): 2660-2667. 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.105.556746.
Ryan S, Taylor CT, McNicholas WT: Predictors of elevated nuclear factor-kappaB-dependent genes in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2006, 174 (7): 824-830. 10.1164/rccm.200601-066OC.
Steiropoulos P, Kotsianidis I, Nena E, Tsara V, Gounari E, Hatzizisi O, Kyriazis G, Christaki P, Froudarakis M, Bouros D: Long-term effect of continuous positive airway pressure therapy on inflammation markers of patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Sleep. 2009, 32 (4): 537-543.
Vgontzas AN, Zoumakis E, Bixler EO, Lin HM, Collins B, Basta M, Pejovic S, Chrousos GP: Selective effects of CPAP on sleep apnoea-associated manifestations. Eur J Clin Invest. 2008, 38 (8): 585-595. 10.1111/j.1365-2362.2008.01984.x.
Burioka N, Miyata M, Fukuoka Y, Endo M, Shimizu E: Day-night variations of serum interleukin-6 in patients with severe obstructive sleep apnea syndrome before and after continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). Chronobiol Int. 2008, 25 (5): 827-834. 10.1080/07420520802384101.
Ye L, Ma GH, Chen L, Li M, Liu JL, Yang K, Li QY, Li N, Wan HY: Quantification of circulating cell-free DNA in the serum of patients with obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome. Lung. 2010, 188 (6): 469-474. 10.1007/s00408-010-9253-4.
Sharma SK, Kumpawat S, Goel A, Banga A, Ramakrishnan L, Chaturvedi P: Obesity, and not obstructive sleep apnea, is responsible for metabolic abnormalities in a cohort with sleep disordered breathing. Sleep Med. 2007, 8 (1): 12-17. 10.1016/j.sleep.2006.06.014.
Kohler M, Ayers L, Pepperell JC, Packwood KL, Ferry B, Crosthwaite N, Craig S, Siccoli MM, Davies RJ, Stradling JR: Effects of continuous positive airway pressure on systemic inflammation in patients with moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnoea: a randomized controlled trial. Thorax. 2009, 64 (1): 67-73.