- Open Access
Eosinophils in human oral squamous carcinoma; role of prostaglandin D2
© Davoine et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2013
- Received: 17 February 2012
- Accepted: 28 January 2013
- Published: 31 January 2013
Eosinophils are often predominant inflammatory leukocytes infiltrating oral squamous carcinoma (OSC) sites. Prostaglandins are secreted by oral carcinomas and may be involved in eosinophil infiltration. The objective of this study was to determine the factors contributing to eosinophil migration and potential anti-neoplastic effects on OSC. Eosinophil degranulation was evaluated by measuring release of eosinophil peroxidase (EPO). Eosinophil chemotaxis towards OSC cells was assessed using artificial basement membrane. Eosinophil infiltration was prominent within the tissue surrounding the OSC tumor mass. We observed growth inhibition of the OSC cell line, SCC-9, during co-culture with human eosinophils, in vitro, which correlated with EPO activity that possesses growth inhibitory activity. The PGD2 synthase inhibitor, HQL-79, abrogated migration towards SCC-9. Our data suggest that OSC-derived PGD2 may play an important role via CRTH2 (the PGD2 receptor on eosinophils) in eosinophil recruitment and subsequent anti-tumor activity through the action of eosinophil cationic proteins.
- Oral squamous carcinoma
- Prostaglandin D2
Eosinophils are bone marrow-derived, tissue-dwelling granulocytes found transiently in the blood circulation en route to tissue inflammatory sites. They are prominent cells in allergic inflammation, asthma and parasitic helminth infections . Tumor associated tissue eosinophilia (TATE) has long been recognized as a pathological feature associated with a number of malignant tumor types, including cancer of the mouth, esophagus, larynx, pharynx, breast, lung, intestine and genitourinary tract . Although mononuclear cells, and to a lesser extent neutrophils, are also found in oral cancers, eosinophils when present, form the predominant inflammatory cell population [3–5]. While there is evidence of a positive prognosis associated with eosinophil infiltration of grade II and III tumours , in well-differentiated oral cancer of grade III and IV, the presence of TATE indicates a poor prognosis . Regardless, data on the prognostic value of TATE in other cancer types remain inconclusive .
OSC are known to express cycloxygenase-2 (COX-2) and to generate PGE2[8–11]. In fact, expression of COX-2 and PGE2 was thought to be related the proliferation and invasiveness of OSC [12–15]. PGE2 does not possess chemotactic activity for eosinophils, but share the same precursor, PGH2, with a potent eosinophil chemotactic molecule, PGD2[16–18]. In this study we hypothesized that OSC synthesize and release PGD2 which in turn is responsible for specific chemotaxis of eosinophils towards OSC.
Paraffin embedded tissues of the corresponding sections were sectioned at 4 microns. The sections were then deparaffinized and hydrated in distilled water and stained in a Weigert’s iron hematoxylin and Biebrich scarlet solution (9:1). A differentiation step in 1% acid alcohol was then performed on the sections until the eosinophil granules stained bright red, followed by rinsing in tap water. The sections were then stained in a 0.5% lithium carbonate solution until they turned blue. A final rinsing step was performed before the final slide mounting steps.
Blood eosinophil isolation
Approval for the study was obtained from the local Ethics Research Board at the Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry (University of Alberta) and all adult subjects gave their informed consent according to the Helsinki protocol. Blood eosinophils from atopic donors were purified as previously described . Briefly, venous blood (100 ml) was collected in tubes with heparin. Red cells were sedimented using Dextran 6% (Sigma-Aldrich Canada Ltd. Oakville, Ontario, Canada). Granulocytes were separated from mononuclear cells by centrifugation on Ficoll Paque. Eosinophils were separated from neutrophils by CD16 immunomagnetic negative selection using a magnetic cell sorter (Miltenyi Biotec GmbH, Bergisch Gladbach, Germany). Purity of eosinophil preparations was always greater than 98%, the contaminating cells being neutrophils and/or lymphocytes.
SCC9 (American Type Culture Collection (ATCC), Manassas, Virginia) were seeded at 5 × 104 cells/ml in 12 well plates 24h prior addition of eosinophils at a range of eosinophil-SCC9 concentrations. Plates were cultured until confluence of SCC9 cells was reached in control wells. Eosinophils were then removed and adherent cells were fixed with 4% paraformaldehyde (Sigma-Aldrich Canada Ltd. Oakville, Ontario, Canada) for 20 minutes and stained with crystal violet 1% (Sigma-Aldrich Canada Ltd. Oakville, Ontario, Canada). After a PBS wash, cells were lysed with 15% acetic acid and absorbance (550 nm) was measured. Absorbance was in the linear range for 2 × 102 to 2 × 106 eosinophils/well.
The transmigration of eosinophils through the basement membrane components was evaluated in 24-well Biocoat Matrigel Invasion Chambers® (Becton Dickinson, Bedford, MA) as previously described . Before the assay, SCC-9 cells were allowed to grow to confluence in the lower chambers, washed and fresh media replaced before the addition of 0.5 × 106 eosinophils in the upper chamber. PGD2 synthase inhibitor HQL-79 (Cayman Chemical, Ann Arbor, MI.) (0.1-100 μM) was added to lower chambers to block the production of PGD2. HQL-79 is an orally available selective inhibitor of hematopoietic prostaglandin synthase specific with an IC50 of 100 uM for PGD2 but marginally affect the production of other prostanoids [21, 22]. The percentage of transmigration was calculated by dividing the number of cells in the lower chamber of the Matrigel Invasion Chamber® by total number of cells in the lower (migrated) and upper chamber (non-migrated). The proportion of cells recovered was always >95% of the number of added cells and viability always above 98% as determined by annexin V/PI assay (n = 3).
Measurement of EPO release has been previously described [19, 23]. Briefly, eosinophil suspensions (5 × 105 cells/ml HBSS + CaCl2 1.6 mM, 0.1% gelatin) were distributed in 96-well plate. Cells were incubated for 30 min at 37°C. Peroxidase substrate solution for the measurement of EPO was prepared by adding 800 μL of 5 mM O-phenylenediamine HCl (OPD) (Sigma-Aldrich Canada Ltd. Oakville, Ontario, Canada) to 4 ml of 1M Tris buffer (pH 8.0) and 1.25 μL of 30% hydrogen peroxide (Sigma). Distilled water was added to a total volume of 10 ml. The OPD solution was added to each well of eosinophils, incubated for 2 minutes before the reaction was stopped with the addition of 4M H2SO4 (Sigma-Aldrich Canada Ltd. Oakville, Ontario, Canada). Each experiment was done in triplicate and absorbance reading at 490 nm wavelength was done for this colorimetric assay (Softmax, 490 nm wavelength).
Detection of PGD2 in media after transmigration was achieved using by EAI according to manufacturer instructions (Prostaglandin D2 EIA Kit, Cayman chemical, Ann Arbor, MI).
The apoptosis/viability assay was performed using the BD Bioscience Annexin-V-A488 detection kit according to manufacturer instructions. Acquisition was performed using BD FACS-CANTO flow cytometer. Viable cells were double negatives for ToPRO-3 and Annexin-V-A488.
Eosinophils were incubated in the presence of anti-CRTH-2-PE (MB16, RatIgG2a, Miltenyi Biotec, Auburn, CA) or matched isotype control antibody. Direct staining was used to detect the presence of specific surface binding with BD FACScanto flow cytometer.
All results are expressed as mean ± standard error of mean. Comparison between the groups was made using analysis of variance (ANOVA; Statview 5.0, SAS Institute, Cary, NC). A p-value <0.05 was considered significant.
Eosinophil infiltration in oral squamous carcinoma
PGD2 secretion by OSC elicit eosinophil migration
Eosinophils inhibited OSC growth
Growth inhibition of OSC was associated with eosinophil mediator release and eosinophil cytolysis
Eosinophil infiltration around tumor nests is a frequent feature of OSC and is accompanied by a mixed lymphocyte response . This infiltration often correlates with deposition of eosinophils cytotoxic proteins with favorable prognosis but the mechanism remains unclear . The de novo secretion of PGD2 by the OSC cell line, SCC-9, the matrigel transmigration experiments, and inhibition with the PGD2 synthase inhibitor, HQL-79, all combine to suggest that PGD2 may be an important mediator in tumor-induced recruitment of eosinophils.
Previous studies have reported PGE2 secretion by OSC [15, 25, 26] but there has been no evidence that this prostaglandin exerts chemoattractive activity on eosinophils; however a closely related prostaglandin, PGD2, is known for its chemotactic activity on eosinophils [16–18]. In this study we report that eosinophils exhibit potent growth-inhibitory activity against the oral cancer cell line, SCC9 which was associated with eosinophil specific EPO release in culture medium. There is no evidence to date that cytotoxic eosinophil granule deposition plays a role in vivo and no data so far exist to support a correlation between granule deposition in OSC and favorable prognosis. In our experiments, we observed that inhibition of OSC growth correlated with detectable cytotoxic granule enzyme EPO activity in culture medium. This association between OSC growth inhibition and eosinophil mediator release was observed regardless of eosinophil viability in the absence of factors that sustain viability (IL-5) thus disrupting eosinophil cell membranes resulting in a non-specific cytolytic release of granular content.
Immunotherapy using IL-2 has been shown to have moderate success against some tumors and is often associated with “unexpected” but significant eosinophilia , which resulted in assumptions suggesting that eosinophils possess anti-tumor activity, at least in vitro. Indeed, IL-2 is recognized as a potent regulator of eosinophil activation, in vitro[29, 30]. The effects of IL-2 include the release of cytotoxic granules, generation of superoxide radicals [31, 32] and production of autocrine IL-2 [29, 30]. IL-2-induced TATE (corollary to treatment of renal cancer), close proximity of activated eosinophils with bladder tumor cells and the subsequent deposition of eosinophil cationic granules were shown to be associated with a favourable outcome . In contrast, the presence of IL-2-induced eosinophilia was considered predictive of the failure of therapy in renal cancer .
Despite the significant in vitro effects we observed with OSC, eosinophils appeared to be mostly recruited around, but not within OSC masses. As well, there was very little evidence of eosinophil granule deposition ex vivo. Regardless, basic proteins from eosinophil granules are extremely cytotoxic, thus, small concentration of free exocytosed granules may be sufficient to exert a potent inflammatory/cytotoxic response against tumor cells . Recent studies from our group suggested that cell-free granules from eosinophils can secrete their content via direct stimulation of functional cytokine and chemokine membrane receptors for present on the granule membrane, in the absence of an intact cell . In addition to these potential cytotoxic effector activities, eosinophils are also capable of exerting an immunoregulatory role in relation to the tumor environment. Eosinophils secrete a wide range of cytokines chemokines and growth factors  and these may further contribute to the biological and immunological role of the eosinophil in OSC.
Finally, the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor, NS398, was reported to inhibit OSC proliferation by suppressing PGE2 secretion . However, PGE2 is not a chemoattractant for eosinophils. In contrast, we show that PGD2 is a potent chemoattractant for eosinophils, and may contribute to eosinophilic infiltration via its specific PGD2 receptor on eosinophil, CRTH2, which is also a marker of TH-2 subset of helper T-cells . Whether PGD2 also enhances the potential of eosinophils to kill target cells by inducing exocytosis and subsequent deposition of cytotoxic granule proteins remains unknown and is the subject of a separate study. Thus, our data suggest that eosinophils may contribute to the inflammatory response observed in OSC and may limit tumor progression.
This work was supported by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research and the Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry; Endodontics Fund/University of Alberta and the Alberta Heritage Foundation for Medical Research. LC is an Alberta Heritage Medical Scholar. At the time of the study, RM was an Alberta Heritage Medical Scientist, and DJA an Alberta Heritage Clinical Investigator.
- Adamko DJ, Odemuyiwa SO, Vethanayagam D, Moqbel R: The rise of the phoenix: the expanding role of the eosinophil in health and disease. Allergy. 2005, 60: 13-22. 10.1111/j.1398-9995.2005.00676.x.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Samoszuk M: Eosinophils and human cancer. Histol Histopathol. 1997, 12: 807-812.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Falconieri G, Luna MA, Pizzolitto S, DeMaglio G, Angione V, Rocco M: Eosinophil-rich squamous carcinoma of the oral cavity: a study of 13 cases and delineation of a possible new microscopic entity. Ann Diagn Pathol. 2008, 12: 322-327. 10.1016/j.anndiagpath.2008.02.008.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Alkhabuli JO, High AS: Significance of eosinophil counting in tumor associated tissue eosinophilia (TATE). Oral Oncol. 2006, 42: 849-850. 10.1016/j.oraloncology.2005.11.023.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Alrawi SJ, Tan D, Stoler DL, Dayton M, Anderson GR, Mojica P, Douglas W, Hicks W, Rigual N, Loree T: Tissue eosinophilic infiltration: a useful marker for assessing stromal invasion, survival and locoregional recurrence in head and neck squamous neoplasia. Cancer J. 2005, 11: 217-225. 10.1097/00130404-200505000-00008.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Dorta RG, Landman G, Kowalski LP, Lauris JR, Latorre MR, Oliveira DT: Tumour-associated tissue eosinophilia as a prognostic factor in oral squamous cell carcinomas. Histopathology. 2002, 41: 152-157.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Horiuchi K, Mishima K, Ohsawa M, Sugimura M, Aozasa K: Prognostic factors for well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma in the oral cavity with emphasis on immunohistochemical evaluation. J Surg Oncol. 1993, 53: 92-96. 10.1002/jso.2930530209.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Chan G, Boyle JO, Yang EK, Zhang F, Sacks PG, Shah JP, Edelstein D, Soslow RA, Koki AT, Woerner BM: Cyclooxygenase-2 expression is up-regulated in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Cancer Res. 1999, 59: 991-994.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Mohammed SI, Coffman K, Glickman NW, Hayek MG, Waters DJ, Schlittler D, DeNicola DB, Knapp DW: Prostaglandin E2 concentrations in naturally occurring canine cancer. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2001, 64: 1-4. 10.1054/plef.2000.0231.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Pannone G, Bufo P, Caiaffa MF, Serpico R, Lanza A, Lo Muzio L, Rubini C, Staibano S, Petruzzi M, De Benedictis M: Cyclooxygenase-2 expression in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol. 2004, 17: 273-282.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Renkonen J, Wolff H, Paavonen T: Expression of cyclo-oxygenase-2 in human tongue carcinoma and its precursor lesions. Virchows Arch. 2002, 440: 594-597. 10.1007/s00428-002-0616-y.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kinugasa Y, Hatori M, Ito H, Kurihara Y, Ito D, Nagumo M: Inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 suppresses invasiveness of oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines via down-regulation of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and CD44. Clin Exp Metastasis. 2004, 21: 737-745.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Mestre JR, Chan G, Zhang F, Yang EK, Sacks PG, Boyle JO, Shah JP, Edelstein D, Subbaramaiah K, Dannenberg AJ: Inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 expression. An approach to preventing head and neck cancer. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1999, 889: 62-71. 10.1111/j.1749-6632.1999.tb08724.x.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Minter HA, Eveson JW, Huntley S, Elder DJ, Hague A: The cyclooxygenase 2-selective inhibitor NS398 inhibits proliferation of oral carcinoma cell lines by mechanisms dependent and independent of reduced prostaglandin E2 synthesis. Clin Cancer Res. 2003, 9: 1885-1897.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sumitani K, Kamijo R, Toyoshima T, Nakanishi Y, Takizawa K, Hatori M, Nagumo M: Specific inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 results in inhibition of proliferation of oral cancer cell lines via suppression of prostaglandin E2 production. J Oral Pathol Med. 2001, 30: 41-47. 10.1034/j.1600-0714.2001.300107.x.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Fujishima H, Fukagawa K, Okada N, Takano Y, Tsubota K, Hirai H, Nagata K, Matsumoto K, Saito H: Prostaglandin D2 induces chemotaxis in eosinophils via its receptor CRTH2 and eosinophils may cause severe ocular inflammation in patients with allergic conjunctivitis. Cornea. 2005, 24: S66-S70. 10.1097/01.ico.0000178733.42921.4c.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Hirai H, Tanaka K, Yoshie O, Ogawa K, Kenmotsu K, Takamori Y, Ichimasa M, Sugamura K, Nakamura M, Takano S, Nagata K: Prostaglandin D2 selectively induces chemotaxis in T helper type 2 cells, eosinophils, and basophils via seven-transmembrane receptor CRTH2. J Exp Med. 2001, 193: 255-261. 10.1084/jem.193.2.255.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Monneret G, Gravel S, Diamond M, Rokach J, Powell WS: Prostaglandin D2 is a potent chemoattractant for human eosinophils that acts via a novel DP receptor. Blood. 2001, 98: 1942-1948. 10.1182/blood.V98.6.1942.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Davoine F, Ferland C, Chakir J, Lee JE, Adamko DJ, Moqbel R, Laviolette M: Interleukin-12 inhibits eosinophil degranulation and migration but does not promote eosinophil apoptosis. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2006, 140: 277-284. 10.1159/000093705.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ferland C, Guilbert M, Davoine F, Flamand N, Chakir J, Laviolette M: Eotaxin promotes eosinophil transmigration via the activation of the plasminogen-plasmin system. J Leukoc Biol. 2001, 69: 772-778.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Aritake K, Kado Y, Inoue T, Miyano M, Urade Y: Structural and functional characterization of HQL-79, an orally selective inhibitor of human hematopoietic prostaglandin D synthase. J Biol Chem. 2006, 281: 15277-15286. 10.1074/jbc.M506431200.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Schuligoi R, Sedej M, Waldhoer M, Vukoja A, Sturm EM, Lippe IT, Peskar BA, Heinemann A: Prostaglandin H2 induces the migration of human eosinophils through the chemoattractant receptor homologous molecule of Th2 cells, CRTH2. J Leukoc Biol. 2009, 85: 136-145.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Adamko DJ, Wu Y, Gleich GJ, Lacy P, Moqbel R: The induction of eosinophil peroxidase release: improved methods of measurement and stimulation. J Immunol Methods. 2004, 291: 101-108. 10.1016/j.jim.2004.05.003.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Pereira MC, Oliveira DT, Kowalski LP: The role of eosinophils and eosinophil cationic protein in oral cancer: a review. Arch Oral Biol. 2011, 56: 353-358. 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2010.10.015.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Hoshikawa H, Goto R, Mori T, Mitani T, Mori N: Expression of prostaglandin E2 receptors in oral squamous cell carcinomas and growth inhibitory effects of an EP3 selective antagonist, ONO-AE3-240. Int J Oncol. 2009, 34: 847-852.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Husvik C, Khuu C, Bryne M, Halstensen TS: PGE2 production in oral cancer cell lines is COX-2-dependent. J Dent Res. 2009, 88: 164-169. 10.1177/0022034508329519.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- van Haelst Pisani C, Kovach JS, Kita H, Leiferman KM, Gleich GJ, Silver JE, Dennin R, Abrams JS: Administration of interleukin-2 (IL-2) results in increased plasma concentrations of IL-5 and eosinophilia in patients with cancer. Blood. 1991, 78: 1538-1544.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Rivoltini L, Viggiano V, Spinazze S, Santoro A, Colombo MP, Takatsu K, Parmiani G: In vitro anti-tumor activity of eosinophils from cancer patients treated with subcutaneous administration of interleukin 2. Role of interleukin 5. Int J Cancer. 1993, 54: 8-15. 10.1002/ijc.2910540103.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Bosse M, Audette M, Ferland C, Pelletier G, Chu HW, Dakhama A, Lavigne S, Boulet LP, Laviolette M: Gene expression of interleukin-2 in purified human peripheral blood eosinophils. Immunology. 1996, 87: 149-154.PubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Levi-Schaffer F, Barkans J, Newman TM, Ying S, Wakelin M, Hohenstein R, Barak V, Lacy P, Kay AB, Moqbel R: Identification of interleukin-2 in human peripheral blood eosinophils. Immunology. 1996, 87: 155-161.PubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Conesa A, Tassinari P, Aldrey O, Taylor P, Bianco NE, De Sanctis JB: Interleukin-2 induces peroxide production by primed normodense eosinophils of patients with asthma. Allergy Asthma Proc. 2003, 24: 27-33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Valerius T, Repp R, Kalden JR, Platzer E: Effects of IFN on human eosinophils in comparison with other cytokines. A novel class of eosinophil activators with delayed onset of action. J Immunol. 1990, 145: 2950-2958.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Huland E, Huland H: Tumor-associated eosinophilia in interleukin-2-treated patients: evidence of toxic eosinophil degranulation on bladder cancer cells. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 1992, 118: 463-467. 10.1007/BF01629431.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Moroni M, Porta C, De Amici M, Quaglini S, Cattabiani MA, Buzio C: Eosinophils and C4 predict clinical failure of combination immunotherapy with very low dose subcutaneous interleukin-2 and interferon in renal cell carcinoma patients. Haematologica. 2000, 85: 298-303.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kubo H, Loegering DA, Adolphson CR, Gleich GJ: Cytotoxic properties of eosinophil granule major basic protein for tumor cells. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 1999, 118: 426-428. 10.1159/000024154.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Neves JS, Perez SA, Spencer LA, Melo RC, Reynolds L, Ghiran I, Mahmudi-Azer S, Odemuyiwa SO, Dvorak AM, Moqbel R, Weller PF: Eosinophil granules function extracellularly as receptor-mediated secretory organelles. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008, 105: 18478-18483. 10.1073/pnas.0804547105.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Hogan SP, Rosenberg HF, Moqbel R, Phipps S, Foster PS, Lacy P, Kay AB, Rothenberg ME: Eosinophils: biological properties and role in health and disease. Clin Exp Allergy. 2008, 38: 709-750. 10.1111/j.1365-2222.2008.02958.x.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.