The interaction between innate signalling, through TLRs, and inflammasome signalling in the transcription and translation of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL1. Oxidised LDL is a ligand for TLR, resulting in IL1 RNA transcription. Inflammasomes (which may be activated by cholesterol crystals ) initiate intracellular pathways which result in the post-translational modification and, ultimately the secretion of IL1 protein. Therefore, a connection between TLR and inflammasome pathways in the innate inflammatory process in atherosclerosis is alluded to. ASC, apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD; CARD, caspase recruitment domain; CD, cluster of differentiation; ECM, extra-cellular matrix; IκB, nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells inhibitor; IL, interleukin; IRAK, interleukin 1 receptor-associated kinase; LPS, lipopolysaccharide; MAL, MyD88 adaptor-like; MyD88, myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88; NALP3, nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor P3; NFκB, nuclear factor kappa B; PAMPs, pathogen-associated molecular patterns; TLR, toll-like receptor, TRAF, tumour necrosis factor receptor associated factor.