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Table 1 Possible functions and activities of cytokines in ECRS

From: Pathogenesis of eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis

IL-3, IL-5, GM-CSF Hematopoietic cell development, differentiation, and maturation
IL-4, IL-5, IL-1β, PDGFα Critical for PDGFRα
IL-9 Regulates granulocytopoiesis in allergic inflammation
IL-13 Increases the levels of beta-catenin, which contributes to cell-cell adhesion, increases mucus production
IL-16 Stimulates the migration of persistently activated eosinophils
TGFα, IL-31, Th2 cytokines Increase mucus production
IL-25, IL-33 Initiate Th2 inflammation and eosinophilia
IFN-γ, TGF-β Downregulated in ECRS