TNF-α-induced adhesion molecules expression is reduced by sodium casein-derived peptides in EC. (A) VCAM-1, ICAM-1 and E-selectin gene expression was performed on EC treated with casein hydrolysate or control sample for 18 h, followed by 6 h stimulation with TNF-α (0.5 ng/ml). Cells were harvested in RLT buffer, RNA was extracted and reverse transcription was performed for RT-PCR analysis. (B) For the quantification of protein surface expression of adhesion molecules, flow cytometric analysis was performed on TNF-α activated EC (6 h, 0.5 ng/ml) pre-incubated with casein hydrosylate. Data are expressed as mean ± SEM of 3 independent experiments. Statistical analysis was carried out using one-way ANOVA employing Dunnett correction for multiple comparisons. A statistical value of *P < 0.05 or greater was considered significant; $$$$ (p < 0.0001) vehicle vs. control; ****P < 0.0001, ***P < 0.001 and **P < 0.01 treatments vs. control (TNF-α activated EC).