HMGB1 mediated HS/R-induced acute lung injury (ALI). Mice were subjected to sham surgery, HS/R, or HS/R plus A-Box (300 μg, i.p., given at the beginning of the transfusion of shed blood). A. Mouse blood was collected 24 hrs after resuscitation, plasma was obtained by centrifugation and circulating HMGB1 was determined with a HMGB1 ELISA kit. Five mice per group, *p < 0.05 vs sham group. B and C. Twenty-four hours after resuscitation, mouse ALI was assessed using tissue MPO activity (B) and pulmonary protein leakage (C). Six mice per group for MPO activity experiments; Five mice in each group for pulmonary protein leakage experiments, *p < 0.0 vs. sham; #p < 0.05 vs. HS/R.