Strong upregulation of mRNA levels of macrophage markers and proteases provides a direct evidence for macrophage infiltration. (A) macrophage markers and (B) proteases. EF stands for epididymal fat pad and MF for mesenteric fat pad. Data are presented as fold change of mRNA levels in HFC group vs. chow group. Statistical significance was determined by two-tailed Welch t test where P < 0.05 (*), P < 0.01 (**), and P < 0.001 (***) (details in Methods).