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Table 1 Studies examining sST2 in serum/plasma of patients with CV disease

From: Role of IL-33 in inflammation and disease

Disease Result Ref.
AMI    • sST2 levels were increased in the serum of patients 1 day after AMI. [93]
     • ST2 levels predicted subsequent mortality and HF in patients admitted with AMI (TIMI, STEMI & CLARITY-TIMI trials). [103, 104]
     • sST2 levels predicted adverse left ventricular functional recovery and remodeling post-AMI. [105]
Acute chest pain    • Measurement of sST2 was of no prognostic value in the prediction of AMI, acute coronary syndromes or 30-day events in patients presenting to the emergency department with chest pain. [106]
HF    • PRAISE-2 HF trial and showed that the change in sST2 levels was an independent predictor of subsequent mortality or transplantation in patients with severe chronic HF. [107]
     • Increased plasma concentrations of sST2 are predictive for 1-year mortality in patients with acute destabilized HF. [108]
     • sST2 levels correlated with the severity of HF and left ventricular ejection fraction. [109]
     • Serial sampling of sST2 demonstrated that the % change in sST2 concentrations during acute HF treatment is predictive of 90-day mortality. [110]
     • Elevated sST2 concentrations are predictive of sudden cardiac death in patients with chronic HF. [111]
     • Pleural fluid sST2 levels were not helpful for diagnosing effusions due to HF. [112]
     • sST2 levels were lower in decompensated HF patients who did not have a sudden cardiac event. [113]
     • sST2 levels were greater in patients with systolic HF than in those with acutely decompensated HF with preserved ejection fraction. [114]
     • Chronic HF patients whose sST2 levels were in the highest had a markedly increased risk of adverse outcomes compared with the lowest tertile. [115]
Cardiac Surgery    • Cardiac surgery patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting with cardiopulmonary bypass demonstrate a significant rise in sST2 levels 24 hours after surgery. [116, 117]
Outpatient study    • In an outpatient study sST2 levels also reflected right-side heart size and function and were an independent predictor of 1-year mortality in outpatients referred for echocardiograms. [118]
Dyspnea    • sST2 concentration strongly predicted death at 1 year in dyspneic patients. [119122]
     • sST2 concentrations are associated with cardiac abnormalities on echocardiography, a more decompensated hemodynamic profile and are associated with long-term mortality in dyspneic patients. [123]
  1. AMI - Acute Myocardial Infarction; HF - Heart Failure