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Table 2 Patient characteristics, basline vital signs, hemodynamics and laboratories by lactate clearance quartile.

From: Early lactate clearance is associated with biomarkers of inflammation, coagulation, apoptosis, organ dysfunction and mortality in severe sepsis and septic shock

  Quartile 1
N = 55
Quartile 2
N = 55
Quartile 3
N = 55
Quartile 4
N = 55
P-value
Lactate clearance (%) - 24.3 ± 42.3 30.1 ± 7.5 53.4 ± 6.6 75.1 ± 7.1 <0.01
Age (years) 63.2 ± 16.5 68.2 ± 17.5 65.7 ± 15.7 66.7 ± 18.4 0.29
Septic shock (%) 70.9 58.2 54.6 36.4 <0.01
Culture positive (%) 45.5 33.3 42.6 32.7 0.41
Blood culture positive (%) 43.4 34.0 42.3 28.9 0.36
Vital signs and hemodynamics
   Temperature (°C) 36.3 ± 3.0 36.5 ± 3.2 36.1 ± 2.7 36.4 ± 2.5 0.67
   Heart rate (beats per min) 113.8 ± 25.4 117.0 ± 27.6 120.0 ± 30.9 117.8 ± 36.0 0.70
   Systolic blood pressure (mm Hg) 108.0 ± 39.7 103.3 ± 30.2 108.1 ± 35.0 110.4 ± 40.0 0.88
   Mean arterial pressure (mm Hg) 76.1 ± 26.6 71.2 ± 21.8 75.8 ± 26.9 76.1 ± 27.4 0.81
   Shock index (HR/SBP) 1.2 ± 0.5 1.2 ± 0.4 1.2 ± 0.5 1.2 ± 0.6 0.76
   Respiratory rate (breaths per min) 29.5 ± 10.3 30.4 ± 10.9 34.2 ± 11.8 32.2 ± 10.9 0.16
   CVP (mm Hg) 6.0 ± 8.7 4.5 ± 8.7 3.9 ± 8.9 5.7 ± 8.2 0.16
   ScvO2 (%) 49.3 ± 12.9 51.4 ± 12.0 44.1 ± 12.6 51.2 ± 12.3 0.28
Laboratories
   White blood cells (×103 per mm3) 11.8 ± 7.1 13.5 ± 8.9 15.0 ± 10.5 15.6 ± 9.1 0.13
   Hemoglobin (g/dL) 11.6 ± 2.6 11.0 ± 2.9 11.5 ± 2.5 11.3 ± 2.7 0.68
   Platelets (×103 per μL) 163.7 ± 82.2 184.0 ± 116.7 254.1 ± 135.6 244.4 ± 124.8 <0.01
   Creatinine (mg/dL) 2.5 ± 2.2 2.5 ± 1.7 2.6 ± 1.9 2.7 ± 2.4 0.94
   Glucose (mg/dL) 303.5 ± 421.4 172.1 ± 150.6 240.9 ± 275.0 321.1 ± 382.0 0.07
   Anion gap (mEq/L) 22.2 ± 9.6 20.0 ± 7.3 21.5 ± 7.9 22.2 ± 6.9 0.52
   Total bilirubin (mg/dL) 1.9 ± 2.3 1.9 ± 3.1 1.2 ± 1.4 0.9 ± 0.7 0.03
   Albumin (g/dL) 2.7 ± 0.7 2.8 ± 0.7 2.8 ± 0.7 3.1 ± 0.6 <0.01
   Lactate (mmol/L) 7.5 ± 5.8 7.3 ± 4.9 7.3 ± 3.8 7.3 ± 3.5 0.47
  1. Lactate clearance - defined as the percent change in lactate level after six hours from baseline measurement = [(LactateED Presentation - LactateHour 6)/LactateED Presentation] × 100. A positive value denotes a decrease or clearance of lactate, whereas a negative value denotes an increase in lactate after 6 hours of intervention. Lactate clearance quartile - derived from sorting the study population by increasing lactate clearance and separating into four groups with equivalent number of patients. HR - heart rate; SBP - systolic blood pressure; CVP - central venous pressure; ScvO2 - central venous oxygen saturation.