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Table 2 Systemic inflammation in never-smoker controls, current smokers controls, COPD ex-smokers and COPD current smokers

From: Smoking status and tumor necrosis factor-alpha mediated systemic inflammation in COPD patients

  Never-smoker controls
N = 34
Current smoker controls
N = 24
COPD ex-smokers
N = 53
COPD current smokers
N = 24
TNF-α(pg/mL) 3.7 (3.4-4.0) 4.8 (4.2-6.1) * 4.3 (3.9-4.9) 4.8(4.2-5.8) *
IL-6 (pg/mL) 0.35 (0.21-0,44) 0.42 (0.29-0.81) 0.88 (0.52-1.41) ‡† 0.83(0.46-1.33)
IL-8 (pg/mL) 5.47 (4.45-7.85) 5.68 (4.32-8.35) 5.53 (3.87-11.82) 5.77(3.87-10.53)
CRP (pg/L) 1.10 (0.62-2.00) 1.07 (0.56-2.54) 4.65 (1.62-7.92) ‡† 6.85(2.97-9.39)‡†
  1. TNF-α:Tumor necrosis factor alpha, IL-6: interleukin 6, IL-8: interleukin 8, CRP: C-reative protein. Kruskal-Wallis test followed by Dunn's Method to account for multiple comparisons.
  2. * p < 0.05 when compared to never-smoker controls and COPD ex-smokers. p < 0.05 when compared to never-smoker controls. p < 0.05 when compared to current smoker controls.