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Table 2 Overview of imaging studies related to transcriptional regulation in inflammation

From: Molecular imaging of transcriptional regulation during inflammation

Type of study Results
Imaging neural regulation of NF-κB Hepatic NF-κB is crucial for recruitment of neutrophils to the injured brain [33].
Vagus nerve signaling regulates NF-κB activity [35].
Imaging of infection models In vivo imaging of NF-κB in lung [31].
NF-κB is sufficient to cause lung inflammation [36].
Duration of NF-κB activity is determining for lung injury [37].
Bacterial lung infection induces NF-κB. Lack of oxidative burst and targeted inhibition of NF-κB worsens Pseudomonas infection [38, 39].
NF-κB is induced in infected mammary glands [40].
NF-κB is central for regulating milk production of mammary glands [41].
Imaging autoimmune disease In vivo imaging of NF-κB during arthritis [32].
Tracking NF-κB in a transgenic model with various autoimmune diseases [47].
Evaluation of NF-κB inhibitor in arthritis. Combined imaging of NF-κB activity and protease specific near infrared probe [48].
Evaluation of probe for reactive oxygen species and NF-κB activity in arthritis [49].
Imaging of dietary influence NF-κB activity during high fat feeding and obesity [51].
NF-κB and its role in energy balance of obese mice [52].
Vitamin A regulates NF-κB activity [54].
Imaging host immune reaction Interaction between host and biomaterial induces NF-κB [87]
Imaging TGFβ signaling Imaging Smad2/3-dependent TGF-beta signaling reveals prominent tissue-specific responses to inflammatory stimulus and injury [55].
Orally administered TGF-beta is biologically active in the intestinal mucosa and enhances oral tolerance [89].
Imaging of Smad signaling shows correlation with excitotoxic neurodegeneration [90].
Imaging regulation through natural promoters of inflammatory genes iNOS-promoter activity used to evaluate effect of anti-inflammatory compounds [57].
Regulation of IκBα expression involves both the NF-κB and MAP kinase signaling pathways [58].
Serum amyloid A is induced by inflammatory stimuli. NF-κB is an important regulator [59].
GADD45β-promoter regulation by NF-κB and not MAPK pathway in acute inflammation [60].
Imaging Cox-2 gene expression in living animals with a luciferase knock-in reporter gene [93].
Imaging inflammation in non-conventional transgenic mice NF-κB activation during liver inflammation in mice and prevention by catalase delivery [61].
Real-time imaging of ligand-induced IKK activation in liver [62].
Viral delivery of reporter constructs to discrete brain region used to monitor longitudinal NF-κB and AP1 activity [63].