Inhibition of extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) and JNK inhibits IL6 induction by peptidoglycan. Both ERK and JNK were inhibited by treating cells with 10 μM of U0126 and SP600125(SP) and 50 μg/ml of the NFkB inhibitory peptide (SN50) for 30 minutes before treating with LPS (100 ng/ml) and PEP (10 μg/ml) for 6 hours. Inhibition of ERK and JNK, but not NFκB, inhibited IL6 induction by peptidoglycan. Bars represent means and ± SEM of this normalized expression from 4 different replicates. Bars with different superscripts are different (P < 0.05).