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Table 3 NF- κ B inhibitors from dietary/natural products

From: Chronic inflammation and cancer: potential chemoprevention through nuclear factor kappa B and p53 mutual antagonism

Name of phytochemicals Dietary/natural source Chemical nature Mechanism of action References
Celastrol Root extracts of Celastrus Tripterygium wilfordii(Thunder god vine), and Celastrus orbiculatus, Celastrus regelii A quinone methide triterpenoid a) Blocks cytosolic I κ B α degradation and nuclear translocation of RelA. [247, 320]
    b) Blocks IKK function and IKK β activity. [225]
Epicatechin Green Tea, Cocoa, Grapes Pentahydroxyflavane a) Blocks constitutive NF- κ B activity by blocking p65 nuclear translocation. [317]
    b) Inhibits NF- κ B DNA-binding activity  
Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) Green Tea Ester of epigallacatechin and gallic acid (a type of catechin) a) Inhibits IKK activation, I κ B α degradation, and NF- κ B activation. In addition, EGCG inhibited phosphorylation of the p65 subunit of NF- κ B. [321]
    b) Prevents nuclear translocation of p65 [322]
Apigenin Parsley, Thyme, Peppermint Trihydroxyflavone a) Blocks p65 phosphorylation by inhibiting IKK function [318]
    b) Suppress NF- κ B translocation to nucleus and inhibits I κ B α phosphorylation and degradation [323]
Xantholhumol Hops, Beer Prenylated chalconoid Inhibits NF- κ B through suppression of I κ B α phosphorylation [324]
Genistein Soybeans, Fava beans 4,5,7-trihydroxyisoflavone a) Blocks activation of NF- κ B concomitant with degradation of I κ B α [325]
    b) Exerts its inhibitory effect on NF- κ B signaling through Akt pathway [326]
Capsaicin Chilli pepper 8-methyl-N-vanillyl-6-nonenamide a) Blocks I κ B- α degradation and nuclear translocation of p65 b) Inhibits NF- κ B activity by blocking I κ B- α degradation and phosphorylation [258]
Boswellin Produced by plants in the genus Boswellia Pentacyclic triterpene Inhibits constitutively activated NF- κ B signaling by inhibiting IKK activity [327]
Escin Aesculus hippocastanum (the horse chestnut). Pentacyclic triterpene Inhibits TNF-induced IKK activation, I κ B α phosphorylation and degradation [328]
Sesamin Isolated from the bark of Fagara plants and from sesame oil Lipid soluble lignan a) Blocks NF- κ B activation by blocking I κ B- α degradation and phosphorylation [329]
    b) Down regulates both constitutive and inducible NF- κ B activation. Suppress p65 phosphorylation and nuclear translocation [330]
Luteolin Celery, broccoli, green pepper, parsley, thyme A polyphenol flavonoid [2-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)- 5,7-dihydroxy-4-chromenone] Inhibition of NF- κ B activity by accumulation of ROS [331]
Parthenolide occurs naturally in the plant feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium) Sesquiterpene lactone Inhibits of NF- κ B both indirectly by inhibiting IKK, and directly by modifying p65 at a key cysteine residue in its activation loop [332]