Left panel: interactions between corticosteroids and proteins coding for genes differentially expressed in pig 3 8 h after challenge with Salmonella . Right panel (graph): cortisol levels in mucosal scraping of Salmonella treated (4 and 8 h) and mock treated (0 h and control) segments. Bars represent the mean of 2 independent observations and error bars represent the variation between these observations. 0 hour bars represent the concentration of cortisol present in the intestinal segments before perfusion was applied (average concentration ± SD; 24.8 ng/g ± 2.6 [n = 6]). The bar marked with a number sign (#) was identified as a true outlier (i.e. was significant different) in a two-sided Grubbs’ test (p < 0.01) using the mean and standard deviation calculated over all determined values.