Skip to main content

Table 2 Systemic immune activation, inflammation, microbial translocation, proinflammatory cytokines, intestinal damage and inflammation biomarkers

From: Association of intestinal and systemic inflammatory biomarkers with immune reconstitution in HIV+ patients on ART

  HIV- (n = 14) IR (n = 18) INR (n = 18) p value
T-CELL IMMUNE ACTIVATION
CD4+ T-cells
  HLA-DR+ expression, % 59 (16.2–92.9) 61.8 (22.7–84.3) 58.1 (37.3–75.8) 0.949a
  HLA-DR+, MFI 7500 (6646–10,826) 9874 (5474–14,796) 7067 (5591–13,789) 0.802a
  CD38+ expression, % 51.2 (42.9–56.1) 47.3 (35.2–54.6) 39.1 (25.3–42.7) < 0.05a
  CD38+, MFI 5203 (4322–6001) 4771 (4574–5666) 4930 (4475.5–5766.5) 0.892a
  HLA-DR+ and CD38+ co-expression, % 34.7 (31.9–52.3) 40.8 (23.1–48.1) 18.1 (9.8–23.8) < 0.01a
  HLA-DR+ and CD38+, MFI 11,380 (7002.5–12,585.5) 5310 (4657–24,752) 9661 (7280–18,114) 0.727a
CD8+ T-cells
  HLA-DR+ expression, % 37.8 (30.8–45.5) 23 (13.4–57.9) 35 (16.7–57.5) 0.648a
  HLA-DR+, MFI 7019.5 (5789–8557) 10,965 (9207–17,730) 9696 (7193.5–12,288.5) < 0.05a
  CD38+ expression, % 46 (33.2–50.4) 33.6 (23–50.3) 36.2 (24–43.4) 0.618a
  CD38+, MFI 4098 (3250–5171) 3724 (3342–3791) 3684 (3360–4640) 0.712a
  HLA-DR+ and CD38+ co-expression, % 11.1 (6.6–13.2) 13.8 (11.6–15.8) 12.4 (6.4–26.3) 0.466a
  HLA-DR+ and CD38+, MFI 8840 (7816–12,020) 13,987 (10852–19,953) 14,066 (11643–18,748) 0.186a
INNATE IMMUNE ACTIVATION
 sCD14, ng/mL 55.6 (12.2–199.6) 184.7 (109.4–329.9) 238.8 (196.2–378.9) < 0.01a
 sCD163, ng/mL 192.1 (158.3–254.9) 242.5 (141.8–339.8) 230.8 (94.5–385.9) 0.789a
SYSTEMIC INFLAMMATION
 C-reactive protein, mg/dL 0.27 (0.16–1.04) 1.24 (0.67–2.09) 1.63 (0.96–4.53) < 0.05a
 C- reactive protein (≥ 3.0 mg/dL), N (%) 1 (7.1%) 3 (16.7%) 6 (33.3%) 0.168b
MICROBIAL TRANSLOCATION
 Lipopolysaccharide, pg/mL 1098.7 (182.8–2876.2) 588.6 (257.1–1931) 979.2 (409.9–2281.8) 0.644a
PROINFLAMMATORY CYTOKINES
 Fecal IL-1β, pg/mL 10.4 (10.4–11.7) 47.1 (16.9–114.4) 44 (28.9–176.3) < 0.001a
 Fecal IL-8, pg/mL 8.21 (8.2–16.6) 116.8 (21.9–234.7) 88.7 (43.8–204.5) < 0.001a
 Fecal IL-18, pg/mL 40.7 (40.7–40.7) 66.8 (40.7–487) 132.8 (40.7454.6) < 0.01a
 IL-1β, pg/mL 11.1 (10.4–11.8) 11.8 (10.4–16.9) 16.9 (10.4–21.9) 0.368a
 IL-8, pg/mL 16.58 (8.2–22) 16.6 (8.21–22) 16.6 (8.2–27.3) 0.845a
 IL-18, pg/mL 89.7 (40.7–192.2) 158 (96.2–257.7) 173.4 (96.2–316.12) 0.153a
INTESTINAL DAMAGE
 I-FABP, ng/mL 6.33 (0.0–126.4) 31.2 (8.5–283.2) 53.6 (27.3–216.2) 0.164a
 sST2, ng/mL 28.6 (23.6–35.6) 31.1 (23.4–39.3) 33.1 (27.6–38.5) 0.603a
INTESTINAL INFLAMMATION
 Fecal lactoferrin, μg/g 2.0 (1.8–2.5) 2.5 (1.9–2.9) 3.1 (2.2–4.0) < 0.05a
 Fecal lactoferrin (≥ 5.6 μg/g), N (%) 0 (0%) 1 (5.6%) 3 (17%) 0.202b
 Fecal calprotectin, μg/g 2.7 (2.6–2.9) 2.7 (2.6–2.9) 3.1 (2.7–3.4) < 0.05a
 Secretory IgA, mg/L 8566.5 (5066.9–10,042.2) 10,122.1 (5721–10,844.8) 7791.2 (6257.4–11,329.9) 0.82a
  1. aKruskall-Wallis test with Bonferroni correction, bChi square. All values are expressed as median and interquartile range, except for those where another measurement expression is specified