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Table 1 Current definition of ARDS: the Berlin definition [3]

From: Biomarkers for Acute Respiratory Distress syndrome and prospects for personalised medicine

Timing Within 1 week of a known clinical insult or new or worsening respiratory symptoms
Chest imaging (chest radiograph or computed tomography scan) Bilateral opacities; not fully explained by effusions, lobar/lung collapse, or nodules
Origin of edema Respiratory failure not fully explained by cardiac failure or fluid overload
Need objective assessment (e.g., echocardiography) to exclude hydrostatic edema if no risk factor present
Oxygenation Mild 200 mmHg < PaO2/FIO2 ≤ 300 mmHg with PEEP or CPAP ≥5 cmH2O
Moderate 100 mmHg < PaO2/FIO2 ≤ 200 mmHg with PEEP ≥5 cmH2O
Severe PaO2/FIO2 ≤ 100 mmHg with PEEP ≥5 cmH2O