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Table 3 Clinical studies and animal models evaluating longitudinal cytokine response to trauma

From: The impact of septic stimuli on the systemic inflammatory response and physiologic insult in a preclinical non-human primate model of polytraumatic injury

  IL-6 IL-10 TNF
Study (reference #) Injury/Insult, n Mean Peak (pg/mL) Time Point Mean Peak (pg/mL) Time Point Mean Peak (pg/mL) Time Point
Kubiak 2011 [20]
Animal (Insult): Swine (Trauma, IRI, Sepsis)
Survival: 48 h
Trauma (laparotomy) + IRI (SMA clamp ×  30 min) + Sepsis (fecal clot) with passive drainage at 12 h. n = 5 23,702 36 h 163 6 h 852 48 h
Kinasewitz 2000 [30]
Animal(Insult): NHP (Trauma, Sepsis)
Survival: 14 days
Trauma (laparotomy), Sepsis (E coli fibrin clot peritonitis). n = 5 (non-survivor) ~ 22,000 4 h    ~ 31,000 (death) 2 h
Trauma (laparotomy), Sepsis (E. coli fibrin clot peritonitis). n = 4 (signs of sepsis) ~ 22,000 4 h    ~ 12,000 (sepsis) 2 h
Trauma (laparotomy), Sepsis (E. coli fibrin clot peritonitis). n = 4 (well appearing) ~ 10,000 4 h    ~ 12,000 (well) 2 h
Martin 1997 [21]
Clinical Study (Sepsis vs. Trauma and Survivors vs. Nonsurvivors) and (Sepsis vs. Trauma and Hemorrhage)
Septic Shock (mean APACHE II score = 27) non-survivors n = 14 15,627 arrival    34 9th blood draw
Septic Shock (mean APACHE II score = 27) survivors n = 11 ~ 4000 arrival    ~ 20 3rd blood draw
Trauma (mean ISS = 27) non-survivors n = 7 600 8th blood draw    30 blood draw 13
Trauma (mean ISS = 27) survivors n = 53 ~ 200 peak    ~ 20 blood draw 11
Trauma (mean ISS not reported) + Hemorrhagic Shock n = 8 420 2nd blood draw    ~ 30 8th blood draw
Jastrow 2009 [40]
Clinical Study (Trauma +/− MOF)
Trauma (mean ISS 26) with MOF. n = 11 7179 2–6 h 239 2–6 h 211 2–6 h
Trauma (mean ISS 25) with nonMOF. n = 37 427 6–10 h 15 2–6 h 0 2–6 h
PHM Animal: NHP (Trauma, Hemorrhage, and Sepsis)
Survival: 14 days
Trauma (laparoscopic liver/bowel injury, flank soft tissue injury) + intra-abdominal hemorrhage/ sepsis ×  2 h. n = 20 6860 4 h 13,519 2 h 321 24 h
THM Animal: NHP (Trauma and Hemorrhage) Survival: 14 days Trauma (laparoscopic liver injury) + Hemorrhage (uncontrolled hemorrhage ×  120 min)n = 5 1168 4 h 588 2 h 2 60 min
Sheppard 2017 [43]
Animal: NHP (Trauma and Hemorrhage)
Survival: 24 h
Trauma (Lapartomy and Femur Fracture) + Decompensated Hemorrhage (pressure controlled) ~ 750 6 h ~ 450 <  6 h   
Trauma (Laparotomy and Femur Fracture) + 60 min Hemorrhage (Pressure Controlled) ~ 400 6 h ~ 650 <  6 h   
Deitch 1996 [41]
Animal: NHP (Trauma and Hemorrhage vs. Trauma)
Survival: 8 h
Trauma (neck dissection and partial removal of clavicle) + Hemorrhage (40 mmHg × 3 h or reached -5 mEq Base Excess). n = 5 ~ 350 ~ 4 h     
Trauma (neck dissection and partial removal of clavicle) ~ 100 ~ 8 h     
Namas 2009 [38]
Clinical Study (Trauma)
Human Trauma (mean ISS 24) + Hemorrhagic Shock n = 4 (non-survivors) 202a within 6 h 33a within 6 h 4a within 6 h
Baker 2012 [35]
Animal: Swine (Trauma vs. Hemorrhage vs. Trauma and Hemorrhage)
Survival: 300 min
Trauma (femur fracture and lung contusion) + Hemorrhage(20-30 mmHg × 60 min). n = 6 ~ 170 2 h ~ 15 baseline 133 baseline
Trauma (femur fracture and lung contusion). n = 5 ~ 170 5 h ~ 100 45 min ~ 300 60 min
Hemorrhage(20-30 mmHg × 60 min)n = 5 ~ 150 3 h ~ 41 <  15 min ~ 290 45 min
Namas 2009 [38]
Animal (insult): Swine (Trauma and Hemorrhage vs. Hemorrhage)
Survival: 2 h after resuscitation
Trauma (anterolateral thoractomy and pericardial window) + Hemorrhage (MAP < 30 mmHg × 10 min, MAP < 20 mmHg for 10 s, or MAP>/= 30 × 90 min). n = 4 (non-survivors) ~ 90 90 min ~ 15 90 min ~ 170 90 min
Hemorrhage (MAP < 30 mmHg × 10 min, MAP < 20 mmHg for 10 s, or MAP >/= 30 × 90 min). n = 3 (non-survivors) ~ 1 baseline ~ 20 60 min ~ 100 baseline
Trauma (anterolateral thoractomy and pericardial window) + Hemorrhage (MAP < 30 mmHg × 10 min, MAP < 20 mmHg for 10 s, or MAP>/= 30 × 90 min). n = 7 (survivors) ~ 40 90 min ~ 1 baseline ~ 240 90 min
Hemorrhage (MAP < 30 mmHg × 10 min, MAP < 20 mmHg for 10 s, or MAP >/= 30 × 90 min). n = 9 (survivors) ~ 30 baseline 5 baseline ~ 600 0 min
  1. Literature review of animal and clinical studies comparing trauma +/− sepsis +/− hemorrhagic insults
  2. ~Serum cytokine level (pg/mL) approximated from article’s figure
  3. NHP nonhuman primate, NMRC Naval Medical Research Center, PHM Polytrauma and Hemorrhage Model, THM Trauma and Hemorrhage Model, IRI Ischemia Reperfusion Injury, SMA Superior Mesenteric Artery
  4. amean cytokine value within first 6 h of injury