Activation of muscle insulin signaling mediators in PL and MMPI groups. MMPI but not PL improves insulin signaling in muscle. Left side panels, A, B and C are digital representations of western immunoblots of key mediators in the insulin signaling pathway (PDK1, Akt, GSK3β. Amounts of phosphorylated and total PDK-1 (A), Akt (B) and GSK3-β (C) in MMPI and PL participants were analyzed at D1 (labeled B on blots) and D84 (labeled A on blots). Specimens for this analysis were obtained from muscle biopsies of seven consecutive age-matched PL and MMPI subjects. In the right side panel, the data is presented as fold change from D1 to D84 in the percentage of phosphorylated (activated) to total molecules in the PL and MMPI groups.