Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) is a ligand-activated nuclear receptor with potent anti-inflammatory properties that modulates the immune inflammatory response. It has been observed in human atherosclerotic lesions and is involved in macrophage cholesterol homeostasis, cellular differentiation, lipid storage, insulin modulation, macrophage lipid homeostasis and anti-inflammatory activities. Molecules such as oxidised low density lipoprotein (oxLDL) or fatty acids may stimulate inflammatory mediators such as 9- and 13- hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid (HODE) generated via the 12,15 lipoxygenase pathway. These are ligands for PPARγ. IL4 is a cytokine that can stimulate PPARγ. PPARγ activation is also associated with the expression of M2 macrophage markers such as the mannose receptor (MR) also known as CD206 . AMAC1, alternative activated macrophage associated CC-chemokine 1; AP1, activator protein 1; CD, cluster of differentiation; IL, interleukin; NFκB, nuclear factor kappa B; SR, scavenger receptor; STAT, signal transducer and activator of transcription.