Macrophages have classically been described as M1 and M2. These two phenotypes differ substantially with respect to the expression of macrophage associated genes. More recently, Kadl et al have described a new subset termed MOX macrophages . These are induced by an environment rich in structurally defined oxidation products such as oxidised 1-palmitoyl-2-arachidonoyl-sn-3-phosphorylcholine (oxPAPC) and can be induced from an M1 or M2 phenotype. ARE, antioxidant responsive elements; ARG1, arginase 1; CCL, chemokine ligand; COX2, cyclo-oxygenase 2; CXCL, chemokine CXC motif ligand; FIZZ1, found in inflammatory zone 1; GR, galactose receptor; HO1, heme-oxygenase 1; IL, interleukin; IL1ra; interleukin 1 receptor antagonist; ILR2, interleukin 1 receptor type II, decoy receptor; iNOS, inducible nitric oxide synthase; NRF2, nuclear factor erythroid 2-like 2; SR, scavenger receptor; Ym1, chitinase 3-like 3 lectin.