Loss of CFTR Results in high activation of the transcription factors NFκB and AP-1. AS and S cells were incubated in serum free media for 18 h then were stimulated with TNFα/IL-1β for the indicated time. Subsequently, nuclear extracts were prepared then analyzed for NFκB (A, B) and AP-1 (C, D). Cells not stimulated with TNFα/IL-1β are shown as 0 time. A and C; The amount of complexed NFκB and AP-1 probe respectively estimated by image scanning and expressed in arbitrary units. Results are shown as mean ± SEM of three separate experiments (n = 5-6 for each time point and condition). Solid bars, AS cells and open bars S cells. NFκB. AP-1 activation was significantly increased in AS cells at 15 and 30 min after TNFα/IL-1β stimulation (p = 0.003 and p = 0.0002, respectively) compared to S cells.