TMP inhibits TNF-α and MCP-1/CCL-2 protein and mRNA. RAW 264.7 cells were either stimulated with 1 μg/ml of LPS or 1 μg/ml of LPS and 25 μM TMP. Following 24 h of treatment, supernatants were collected and levels of TNF-α (A) and MCP-1/CCL2 (B) were determined by ELISA. To assess the effects of TMP on the transcription of TNF-α (C) and MCP-1/CCL2 (D) genes, RNA was prepared from RAW 264.7 cells stimulated with 1 μg/ml of LPS or 1 μg/ml of LPS and 25 μM TMP for the indicated time periods. Quantitative RT-PCR was used to analyze the levels of TNF-α and MCP-1/CCL2 mRNA. Asterisks indicate significant differences between treatments with LPS and LPS and TMP (p < 0.05, T-test).