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Table 1 Summary of protein targets of inflammatory serine proteases.

From: Protein targets of inflammatory serine proteases and cardiovascular disease

Serine protease Targets Function Role in cardiovascular disease References
Elastase E-cadherin, GM-CSF, IL-1, IL-2, IL-6, IL8, p38MAPK, TNFα, VE-cadherin Degrades ECM components
Regulates inflammatory response
Activates pro-apoptotic signaling
Promotes atheromatous plaque formation
Promotes vascular damage
Promotes ischemia and reperfusion injury
Triggers endothelial cell apoptosis
[13, 4650, 57, 78, 89, 90, 92]
Cathepsin G EGF, ENA-78, IL-8, MCP-1, MMP-2, MT1-MMP,
PAI-1, RANTES, TGFβ, TNFα
Degrades ECM components
Chemo-attractant of leukocytes
Regulates inflammatory response
Promotes apoptosis
Initiates calcification and fibrosis of aortic valve
Promotes tissue remodeling
Induces VSMC proliferation
Modulates coagulation
[5865, 67, 70, 78, 88]
PR-3 ENA-78, IL-8, IL-18, JNK, p38MAPK, TNFα Promotes inflammatory response
Activates pro-apoptotic signaling
Promotes vascular damage
Triggers endothelial cell apoptosis
[78, 85, 89, 90]
Thrombin FGF-2,
HB-EGF,
Osteo-pontin,
PDGF, VEGF
Modulates activity of vascular growth factors, chemokines and extracellular proteins
Strengthens VEGF-induced proliferation
Induces cell migration
Angiogenic factor
Regulates haemostasis
Promotes angiogenesis and vascular remodeling
Promotes coagulation and platelet aggregation
[14, 23, 31, 98101, 118, 122, 123, 173, 174]
Kallikreins high molecular weight kininogen, pro-urokinase Modulate relaxation response
Contribute to inflammatory response
Fibrin degradation
Impact fibrinolysis and vascular tone
Induce relaxation of contracted aortas
[132136, 140, 141]
Tryptase and Chymase angiotensin I, fibrinogen, pro-urokinase,
TGFβ
Activate pro-urokinase
Promote angiogenesis
Modulate coagulation cascade
Affect blood pressure
Promote angiogenesis
Promote remodeling of fibrotic tissue
Impact fibrinolysis and vascular tone
[7, 142147]