Upregulation of the inflammatory response is rapid in onset. Explants of human omental adipose tissue were incubated for the indicated times and samples were taken from the medium to examine IL-8 release. The values in panel A are the means of two experiments. The values for IL-8 mRNA [log2 scale] in panel B are the means ± SEM of the ratios of mRNA at the indicated times to that at the start of the incubation for 5 experiments from as many different individuals. The values in panels B & C are based on the changes in absolute Cp values over time as compared to the Cp value in the unincubated tissue. Statistically significant changes in mRNA are indicated as follows: * P < 0.05 and ** P < 0.025. The IL-8 mRNA values at 1 h and all later times shown in panel B were statistically significant from the value at 0.33 h: P < 0.05. The values in panel C for IL-8, IL-1β, TNFα, NFκB1 and HIF-1α mRNA are from a different series of 4 experiments.