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Table 3 Regression models with robust standard errors for TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8 and CRP

From: Smoking status and tumor necrosis factor-alpha mediated systemic inflammation in COPD patients

Model Unadjusted (95% confidence interval) Adjusted (95% coefidence interval)
TNF-α(pg/mL)   
   Current smoking status (yes) 1.032 (0.592,1.471) 1.224 (0.724,1.724)
   Presence of disease (COPD) (yes) 0.323 (-0.049,0.696) 0.110 (-0.457,0.677)
   Age (years) -- 0.018 (-0.009,0.415)
   Gender (Male) -- 0.0005 (-0.6048,0.6049)
   SpO2 (%) -- -0.018 (-0.056,0.019)
   FFM (kg) -- 0.028 (-0.008,0.066)
IL-6 (pg/mL)   
   Current smoking status (yes) 0.110 (-0.183,0.404) 0.185 (-0.177,0.547)
   Presence of disease (COPD) (yes) 0.621 (0.382,0.861) 0.270 (-0.028,0.569)
   Age (years) -- 0.019 (-0.001,0.038)
   Gender (Male) -- -0.022 (-0.329,0.284)
   SpO2 (%) -- -0.022 (-0.065,0.021)
   FFM (kg) -- -0.004 (-0.029,0.020)
CRP (mg/L)   
   Current smoking status (yes) 0.893 (-2.379,4.165) 2.447 (-1.025,5.918)
   Presence of disease (COPD) (yes) 6.834 (3.673,9.994) 4.939 (0.958,8.920)
   Age (years) -- 0.175 (0.006,0.344)
   Gender (Male) -- -0.494 (-3.361,2.372)
   SpO2 (%) -- 0.028 (-0.433,0.488)
   FFM (kg) -- 0.141 (-0.018,0.302)
IL-8 (pg/mL)   
   Current smoking status (yes) -0.829 (-13.738,12.080) -3.836 (-19.490,11.818)
   Presence of disease (COPD) (yes) 11.479 (-0.889,23.847) 24.361 (-0.287,49.009)
   Age (years) -- -0.516 (-1.272,0.240)
   Gender (Male) -- -4.121 (-21.129,12.888)
   SpO2 (%) -- 1.205 (-0.842,3.254)
   FFM (kg) -- 0.831 (-2.633,0.799)
  1. TNF-α: tumor necrosis factor-alpha; IL-6: interleukin 6; IL-8: interleukin 8; CRP: C-reactive protein; SpO2: peripheral saturation; FFM: fat free mass.
  2. Multiple regression with robust standard erros for the analysis of association of current smoking status and presence (COPD) on systemic inflammation (TNF-α, IL-6, CRP and IL-8). The first column shows models without adjustment and the second column shows models with adjustment.