The effects of TMP on serum levels of TNF-α and MCP-1. C57BL6/J mice (5/treatment) were used in a transient endotoxemia model to test TMP's ability to inhibit cytokine and chemokine production in vivo. One group of mice was injected only with PBS while a second group received only TMP (1 mg) in the CPE vehicle. Serum was collected from these mice after 4 h. A third group received the CPE vehicle followed 1 h later by 20 μg of LPS while a fourth group received 1 mg of TMP in the CPE vehicle followed 1 hr later by 20 μg of LPS. Serum was collected from these mice 3 h after the LPS injection. Levels of TNF-α and MCP-1 were determined by ELISA. Panels show means ± SEM from representative experiments. Asterisks indicate significant differences between treatments with CPE vehicle followed by LPS and TMP in CPE vehicle followed by LPS (p < 0.05, Student's t-test). n.d. – not determined.