Effects of cutaneous application of geranium oil on MPO activity by intradermal curdlan injection. Geranium oil was applied immediately and 3 h after curdlan injection. After 6 h, skin was cut off for the MPO assay. (a) 20–100 μl of geranium oil was applied to fur-removed mice. (b) 5–20 μl of geranium oil was applied to fur-removed mice. Data represent the results obtained from 3 experiments. (c) 20 μl of geranium oil was applied to hairless mice. Each value represents an average of 4–5 mice for (a),(c) or 15 mice for (b), and the standard deviation. * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01 compared with control.