Skip to main content

Table 2 TLR ligands set for functional assays

From: Role of toll-like receptors in human iris pigment epithelial cells and their response to pathogen-associated molecular patterns

Ligands or agonists Product description Endotoxin content Toll-like Receptors Manufacturer
Pam3CSK4.3HCl Synthetic tripalmitoylated lipopeptide, an analog of the immunologically active N-terminal portion of bacterial lipoprotein < 0.01 EU/μg TLR1/2 TLR Ligands Set I (Apotech®, Switzerland)
Poly(I:C) Synthetic mimetic of viral double-stranded RNA < 0.01 EU/μg TLR3
Flagellin Isolated from Salmonella typhimurium strain 14028; highly conserved molecules among gram negative and gram positive bacteria, especially in 170 N-terminal and 100 C-terminal amino acid < 0.1 EU/μg TLR5
MALP-2 Synthetic macrophage-activating lipopetides-2 isolated from Mycoplasma fermentans < 0.01 EU/μg TLR2/6
Poly(U) Synthetic analog of single-stranded RNA < 0.1 EU/μg TLR7/8
CpG ODN2395 Synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides containing unmethylated deoxycytosine-deoxyguanosine (CpG) motif, mimicking the effects of bacterial DNA < 0.1 EU/μg TLR9
LPS (O111:B4) Extracted from Escherichia coli serotype O111:B4 and purified by ion exchange - TLR4 Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO