Confirmation of EGF- or TNF-responsive chemokines in ovarian cancer cell lines. (A) Effects of EGF or TNF on CCL2, CCL20, CXCL1, CXCL2, CXCL3, CXCL8 and CXCL16 by qRT-PCR in OVCAR-3 cells. (B) Effects of EGF or TNF on CCL20, CXCL1, CXCL2, CXCL3 and CXCL8 by qRT-PCR in SKOV-3 cells. (C) Effects of EGF or TNF on CCL20, CXCL2, CXCL8 and CXCR5 by qRT-PCR in CaOV-3 cells. (D) Effects of EGF or TNF on CXCL1, CXCL2, CXCL3 and CXCL8 by qRT-PCR in TOV-21G cells. Cells were incubated with vehicle (Control), EGF (10 ng/ml), TNF (10 ng/ml) or both for 1 h. After isolating total RNA, a qRT-PCR array was performed using specific chemokine primers. An asterisk (*) indicates a significant synergistic effect of the combination of EGF and TNF on chemokine expression (P ≤ 0.05) within each group as monitored by ANOVA and Tukey’s pairwise comparisons. Experiments were performed in triplicate and all data are shown as mean ± SEM.